What I Wish My Patients Knew About Treating Depression
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What to Ask About Depression
Major depressive disorder, also referred to as depression, is what I describe as a full body disease. It’s more than just feeling sad or blue. Depression is characterized by at least two weeks of persistent depressed mood and/or loss of interest in pleasurable activities. However, it also may cause marked impairment in sleep, concentration, focus, energy, and appetite. Depression is also associated with constipation, muscle pain, decreased sexual libido, and slowed motor movements. Many people struggle to recognize when they are depressed. Some people who are depressed resist treatment due to feelings of shame brought on by the stigma of mental illness in our society. Others are frightened by horror stories about old insane asylums, or other misguided information. The good thing about depression is that it is a treatable disease and many people respond to one or more forms of treatment. The first and most important step is to be properly diagnosed by a licensed professional.
How is depression diagnosed? The diagnosis of depression can be as simple as filling out a questionnaire or rating tool that is specifically designed to identify depression. Because other diseases can mimic symptoms of depression, including neurological, metabolic, and endocrine disorders, your physician will also want to perform a physical exam, interview, and laboratory work up. Depending on your history, your doctor may also want you to get a CT scan or MRI. Once a proper diagnosis is made, your physician will discuss treatment options with you.
How is depression treated? The gold standard of treatment for depression continues to be antidepressants. Antidepressants are medications that affect the neurotransmitters associated with depression—particularly serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. The most popular antidepressants are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); they prevent the amount of serotonin released in your body from being re-absorbed back into your system. Newer categories of medications include serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which prevent serotonin and norepinephrine from being re-absorbed back into the body. More recent medications, called atypical antidepressants, also enhance serotonin availability but in a way that differs from SSRIs or SNRIs. Older classes of antidepressants include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which are effective treatments for depression but have lost their popularity due to intolerable side effects. Each category of medications has different side effects. SSRIs are more likely to cause diarrhea, weight gain, and sexual side effects than other drug classes. Some side effects go away after a few days. Because of side effects, people commonly discontinue their medication before it has a chance to work. If side effects are intolerable, talk to your doctor about changing your medication. For mild depression, psychotherapy in combination with healthy lifestyle changes may be recommended.
What should I expect from treatment? There are many factors that should be considered when deciding which medication is best. Every person responds to antidepressants differently. This includes how well they work for your depression as well as what side effects you may experience with them. Some people have to try a few medications before they find the right one. If you have a family history of depression, it may be helpful to find out what medication family members have responded to. We now know that there is a genetic relationship to the response to antidepressants. One humongous leap in the treatment of depression includes the introduction of genetic testing. This involves a simple cheek swab that can be sent to a lab to predict what antidepressants will work best for you based upon your gene profile. Once you have the discussion with your doctor and he or she prescribes a medication, you should expect to wait at least three weeks before seeing an improvement in symptoms. In some cases, an additional few more weeks are needed in order to start feeling like yourself again.
THIS CONTENT DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. This content is provided for informational purposes and reflects the opinions of the author. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare professional regarding your health. If you think you may have a medical emergency, contact your doctor immediately or call 911.
Andre’a Watkins, MD, is a psychiatrist with the AXIS Healthcare Group in Kensington, MD. She also works for TMS Neurohealth Centers performing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to treat depression and anxiety. View her Healthgrades profile >
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