Schizophrenia—one of the most complex mental disorders—involves a severe, chronic and disabling disturbance in the brain.There is no known single cause responsible for schizophrenia. It is believed that a chemical imbalance in the brain is an inherited factor. But it's likely that many factors—genetic, behavioral, and environmental—play a role in its development.
Schizophrenia is considered to be multifactorially inherited. Multifactorial inheritance means that "many factors" are involved. The factors are usually both genetic and environmental, where a combination of genes from both parents in addition to unknown environmental factors, produce the trait or condition.
Statistics indicate that schizophrenia affects 2.7 million Americans. Schizophrenia affects men and women equally. But symptoms in men generally begin earlier than in women. In most cases, schizophrenia first appears in men during their late teens or early 20s. In women, schizophrenia often first appears during their 20s or early 30s. Other schizophrenia risk factors include complications at childbirth, living in an urban area, and being born around late winter-early spring (suggesting an association with prenatal influenza exposure).
A child born into a family with a schizophrenic family member has a greater chance of developing the disorder than a child born into a family with no history of schizophrenia. After a person has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, the chance for a sibling to also be diagnosed with it is 7 to 8 percent. If a parent has schizophrenia, the chance for a child to have the disorder is 10 to 15 percent. Risk increases with the number of affected family members.
The symptoms of schizophrenia in children are similar to adults; however, children more often experience auditory hallucinations and typically do not experience delusions or formal thought disorders until mid-adolescence or older. The symptoms of schizophrenia may resemble other problems or psychiatric conditions. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
Diagnosis and Treatment
A psychiatrist usually diagnoses schizophrenia. Other mental health professionals usually participate in completing a comprehensive mental health evaluation to determine individualized treatment needs.
Treatment for schizophrenia is complex. A combination of therapies is often necessary. Treatment is aimed at reducing the symptoms associated with the disorder. Types of treatment that may be helpful to an individual with schizophrenia may include antipsychotic medications and neuroleptics, individual and family psychotherapy (including cognitive and behavioral therapy), and support groups.
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- National Institute of Mental Health http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia-easy-to-read/index.shtml
- National Institute of Mental Health http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia/index.shtml
- Mental Health America http://www.nmha.org/go/information/get-info/schizophrenia/schizophrenia-in-children